Countries That Almost Existed: Intermarium

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Intermarium map
Map of the proposed Intermarium, a federation of Central and Eastern Europe

We’re starting a new series today: countries that almost existed. First up: the Intermarium.

Literally “between seas”, this was a Polish proposal for the federalization of Central and European Europe.

Poland’s post-World War I leader, Józef Piłsudski, was the most prominent proponent of the scheme, but it dates back to the early nineteenth century. Adam Jerzy Czartoryski, a leader of the 1831 Polish uprising against Russia, also supported it.

Outside Poland, the plan met little sympathy.

The Soviets opposed it, because they wanted the Baltic states, Belarus and Ukraine for themselves. The Western Allies were against it, because they assumed Bolshevism would eventually collapse and they still thought of Russia as a counterweight to Germany. Many of the federation’s prospective members saw it as a thinly-veiled attempt to resurrect the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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